Tanganyika became a Sovereign State on 9th December 1961 and a Republic in 1962. Zanzibar became independent on 19th December 1963 as a constitutional monarchy under the sultan and the People’s Republic of Zanzibar was established after the Revolution of 12th January 1964. The two Sovereign States formed the United Republic of Tanzania on 26th April 1964. The United Republic of Tanzania is a nation in East Africa bordered by Kenya and Uganda to the north, Rwanda, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo to the west, and Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique to the south. The country's eastern borders lie on the Indian Ocean
The United Republic of Tanzania is a unitary republic composed of 30 regions. The Capital City is Dodoma and the major commercial city is Dar es Salaam. Official currency is Tanzanian Shilling and the National language is Kiswahili whilst English is widely used in official communication.
The name Tanzania is a portmanteau of Tanganyika and Zanzibar. The two states united in 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, which later the same year was renamed the United Republic of Tanzania. Moreover, Tanzania is one of the least developed countries which has great potential and prospects for attaining higher growth and development levels. The country is richly endowed with natural resources, pursues sound economic policies and has attractive investment policies. Tanzania is a vibrant democracy and the government is seriously committed to good governance, rule of law and respect for human rights.
The History of Tanzania started with the European Colonialists. The 8th century saw the growth of city states along the coast after settlement by Arabs as a nation from Oman. It was seven centuries later in 1499 that the Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama visited the island of Zanzibar. Another 100 years later in the 16th century, the Portuguese occupied Zanzibar. Their occupation did not last for long as in 1699 the Portuguese were ousted from Zanzibar by Arabs of Oman who had returned to make it their own. So in the 18th century the Sultan of Oman reasserted Arab overlord ship of the East African coast, which became subordinate to Zanzibar.
By 1840 when Sultan Seyyid bin Sultan moved his capital from Oman to Zanzibar, trade in slaves and ivory flourished. In 1861, the Sultanates of Zanzibar and Oman separated on the death of Seyyid. During the 19th century, Europeans started to explore inland, closely followed by Christian missionaries. In 1884 the German Colonization Society began to acquire territory on the mainland in defiance of Zanzibar and 1890 Britain obtained protectorate status over Zanzibar, abolished the slave trade, and recognised German claims to the Mainland. German East Africa was formally established as a colony in 1897.
The 1905-07 Majimaji revolt was brutally suppressed by German troops. World events then took over with the outbreak of the First World War, and far as it was from Europe, German East Africa was not immune from the fighting, though effective fighting was short lived due to the successful 1916 Conquest of German East Africa by the British. In 1919, the League of Nations gave Britain a mandate to administer part of German East Africa, known as Tanganyika. In 1946 Tanganyika became a UN trust territory.
A Legislative Council was set up in 1926; it was enlarged in 1945 and restructured in 1955 to give equal representation to Africans, Asians and Europeans, sitting as 30 "'un-officials" with the 31 "officials". In 1954, a schoolteacher, Julius Nyerere, founded the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), which promoted African nationalism and won a large public following campaigning for independence. The colonial authorities responded with constitutional changes increasing the voice of the African population while reserving seats for minority communities.
Elections were held in 1958 and again in 1960. The result was an overwhelming victory for TANU, which was by this time campaigning for independence as well as majority rule. The new government and British Government agreed at a constitutional conference in London to full independence for Tanganyika in December 1961. Zanzibar achieved independence in 1963 as a separate and sovereign country, under the al-Busaidy Sultan.
Tanganyika became a republic in December 1962, one year after achieving independence, and the direct presidential election brought TANU’s leader, Julius Nyerere, to the presidency. In 1965 the Constitution was changed to establish a one-party system. Meanwhile, in Zanzibar, a revolution had overthrown the Arab Sultan on 12th January 1964. One month after independence the Constitution was abrogated; Abedi Amani Karume was declared the first African President of Peoples’ Republic of Zanzibar and the country became a one-party state under the Afro-Shirazi Party.
On 26th April 1964 Tanganyika and Zanzibar united as the United Republic of Tanzania, with Julius Nyerere as President and the head of state, while Karume as his Vice President, retained at the same time the Presidency of Zanzibar. In 1971 Karume was assassinated in Zanzibar and Aboud Jumbe succeeded him as President of Zanzibar and Vice President of Tanzania. The political union between Zanzibar and mainland Tanzania has weathered more than four decades of change. Zanzibar has its own parliament and president.
In an effort to create socially equitable and rapid development, it became in early proponent of African socialism, Ujamaa (roughly meaning Togetherness), launched in 1967 under the banner of Arusha Declaration, with nationalisation of banking, finance, industry and large-scale trade, marketing through boards, and the resettlement of peasants in communal villages, Vijiji vya Ujamaa , created out of large estates
In 1977, the two ruling parties: TANU and Afro Shirazi Party, merged to form the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) which continues to rule the country after consecutive successful elections.
Mwalimu Nyerere once said that culture is the essence and spirit of any nation; A country which lacks its own culture is no more than a collection of people without the spirit which makes them a nation. Tanzania has been described as one of the most diverse countries in Africa and this is reflected in the fact that there are more than 158 local languages spoken in the country. Swahili is the national language that is widely spoken while English is the official language of education; administration and business.
Local people are native African 99 percent of which 95 percent are Bantu consisting of more than 120 tribes and the remaining 1 percent consisting of Asians, Europeans, and Arabs. Most of the population belongs to Christianity Muslim religions and indigenous religions though there is a small number of Hindus and atheists. Generally, Tanzania culture is a product of African, Arab, European and Indian influences. Traditional African values are being consciously adapted to modern life, although at a much slower pace among the Maasai. This section highlights aspects of culture including People and life style, Organizations involved in Cultural Activities ,Ethnic Groups, Performing Arts, Visual Arts and Literature.
Visa is a permission granted to a foreigner other than a prohibited Immigrant to enter and remain in the United Republic of Tanzania for the purpose of visit, leisure, holiday, business, health treatment, studies, or any other activity which is not illegal under the Laws of the United Republic of Tanzania. Besides, Visa may be obtained at any United Republic of Tanzania Missions abroad or Consulates and also on arrival at all designated Entry Points.
Possession of a Visa for United Republic of Tanzania does not provide automatic right of entry for the holder into the Country.
Tanzania has a tropical climate but has regional variations due to topography. In the highlands, temperatures range between 10 and 20 °C (50 and 68 °F) during cold and hot seasons respectively.
The rest of the country has temperatures rarely falling lower than 20 °C (68 °F). The hottest period extends between November and February (25–31 °C or 77.0–87.8 °F) while the coldest period occurs between May and August (15–20 °C or 59–68 °F).
Seasonal rainfall is driven mainly by the migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. It migrates southwards through Tanzania in October to December, reaching the south of the country in January and February, and returning northwards in March, April, and May. This causes the north and east of Tanzania to experience two distinct wet periods – the short rains (or “Vuli”) in October to December and the long rains (or “Masika”) from March to May – while the southern, western, and central parts of the country experience one wet season that continues October through to April or May.
The onset of the long rains averages 25 March and the cessation averages 21 May. A warmer-than-normal South Atlantic Ocean coupled with a cooler-than-normal Eastern Indian Ocean often causes the onset to be delayed.
Of the land area, 84.1% has a tropical wet and dry/ savanna climate (Aw), 6.9% has a semi-arid/ steppe climate (BS), 9% has a temperate/ mesothermal climate with dry winters (Cw).
Of the population, 80.5% live in a tropical wet and dry/ savanna climate (Aw), 9.5% live in a semi-arid/ steppe climate (BS), 10% live in a temperate/ mesothermal climate with dry winters (Cw)
Tanzania has a tropical climate and different bacteria, flora and fauna than most visitors are accustomed to, so it is advisable to take a few health precautions when travelling to make sure your trip goes as comfortably and smooth as possible. Malaria is usually top on the list of visitors' worries, and prevention goes a long way towards keeping you protected. Make sure to visit your doctor to get a prescription for the anti-malarial drug the best suit you. The yellow-fever vaccination is no longer official required when entering Tanzania; however this is still a requirement if you wish to visit Zanzibar. Other vaccination should be considered.
The best choice of vaccines for your trip depends on many individual factors, including your precise travel plans. Vaccines commonly recommended for travellers to Africa include those against Tetanus, Diphtheria, Polio, Typhoid, Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Yellow fever, Rabies and Meningitis.
Certificate required for entry into, or travel between, some African countries. Several of these vaccines require more than one dose, or take time to become effective. It is always best to seek advice on immunisation well in advance, if possible around 6 weeks before departure.
It is advisable to travel with a small medical kit that includes any basic remedies you may need, such as antacids, painkillers, anti-histamines and cold remedies. You will also need anti-diarrhoeal medication such as Imodium (adults only); and oral rehydration sachets such as Electrolade, especially if travelling with children. Also include first aid items such as Band-Aids, antiseptic and dressings. It may be worth asking your doctor to prescribe a broad spectrum antibiotic, suitable for treating dysentery or severe infections.
Take along scissors, tweezers, and thermometer, lip salve, sun block, water purification tablets or drops, as well as your preferred brands of toiletries and cosmetics. If you wear spectacles or contact lenses, take spares. Also take a torch and a pocket knife.
If you eat every meal you are offered, anywhere in the tropics, you will undoubtedly become ill. Be selective. Possible disease hazards range from minor bouts of travellers’ diarrhea to dysentery and more serious parasitic diseases that may ruin your trip, so precautions are worthwhile. Always choose food that has been freshly and thoroughly cooked, and is served hot.
Avoid buffet food, or anything that has been re-heated or left exposed to flies. Avoid seafood. Raw fruit and vegetables tend to be very difficult to sterilise: don’t eat them unless they have been carefully and thoroughly washed in clean water, or are easy to cut open or peel without contaminating the flesh. In the tropics, the easiest and safest fruits are bananas and papayas.
Do not be afraid to reject food you consider unsafe, to ask for something to be prepared specially, or to skip a meal.
Only drink water that you know is safe. Don’t drink tap water or brush your teeth with it, stick to bottled or canned drinks – well known brands are safe. Have bottled mineral waters opened in your presence, and regard all ice as unsafe. Alcohol does not sterilise a drink!
If in doubt, purify water by boiling or with chlorine or iodine, or using a water purifier. (One of the safest methods is to use 2 percent tincture of iodine: add 1 drop of iodine to each cup of water, and wait 20 minutes before drinking.)